Whether it is to know when you are most fertile, or to prepare to have a child, fertility tests for women allow you to know the period of the reproductive cycle in which you are. In men, they are used to measure sperm count. How to properly use male and female fertility tests?
What is a fertility test?
A fertility test makes it possible to know the fertility rate of a person, that is to say of his ability or not to be able to procreate naturally. Male and female fertility tests are different.i They can be carried out in the hospital, by taking a blood sample, after consulting a doctor. But there are also self-tests, sold in pharmacies, to be carried out directly at home. In men, they measure the level of sperm contained in the semen, while in women, they provide information on the period of ovulation.
Fertilization, ovulation, menstrual cycle: some reminders of biology
In order to understand the functioning of the menstrual cycle of the woman, that is to say of her period cycle, it is first necessary to define the phenomenon of ovulation and that of fertilization. Every month, for a period of about a day, the ovulation phase takes place. During this, the ovum (or oocyte) is expelled by the ovary. The latter lives for about 24 hours in the body. In order to maximize the chances of getting pregnant, you must therefore have sex on that day, so that a spermatozoon comes to fertilize the woman’s egg (know that the spermatozoa expelled during ejaculation survive between 3 and 5 days in the cervix).
The fertilization of the ovum by the spermatozoon, which corresponds to the fusion of the male and female gametes, if it takes place, then takes place immediately, within the uterus. If it does not take place, the rules will reappear the following month to start a new cycle.
Why and when to do a fertility test?
Fertility testing can be done for several reasons. For example, if you want to have a child but are having difficulties, a test can tell you about your childbearing situation, and whether these difficulties have a cause. If you are looking to have a child, the test can also tell you the best time to procreate to maximize the chances, that is to say if the period is favorable for fertilization.
In this case, your doctor can prescribe a daily test, which will allow you to have sexual intercourse on specific dates, which correspond to female ovulation. Finally, a test can, conversely, allow you to know the period when you are the least fertile, and when sexual intercourse is less conducive to fertilization (but does not guarantee either 100% not to fall pregnant).
How to do a fertility test in the hospital?
When a couple encounters difficulties in having a child, it is possible to be prescribed fertility tests, both female and male, in order to check whether one of the two partners is not infertile, or has a low rate of fertility. If you want to obtain reliable results, it is advisable to turn to fertility tests by blood test, prescribed by a doctor, which will be carried out at the hospital.
In some cases, in the event of an anomaly being detected, additional analyzes may be prescribed. In men, this test, called spermogram, is used to assess the quality of the sperm present in the semen as well as their quantity, and to check if there is no infection. It is carried out with a sample of sperm taken after masturbation, in a specialized laboratory.
The male and female self-test, to know your fertility rate at home
For women, fertility self-tests are actually ovulation tests. They are used in the same way as pregnancy tests, in the toilet. Thanks to a hormone detected in the urine, which is present in greater quantity during the ovulation phases, the test indicates whether or not one is in a period of high fertility. In this case, this is the best time to get pregnant. For men, the self-test makes it possible, as in laboratories, to calculate the quantity of motile spermatozoa present in the semen. Be careful all the same, this system, although quite reliable, only provides information on the quantity and therefore does not allow other important elements to be taken into account, such as the shape of the spermatozoa. The result of the self-test should therefore be put into perspective.
What to do in case of infertility?
First of all, you have to target the cause of infertility: does it come from the man, the woman, or both? Know that below 15 million sperm per milliliter, a man is considered infertile. Then, a medical follow-up must be done. Indeed, nowadays, it is quite possible to get pregnant despite a problem of infertility: it is possible to consider solutions to help procreation, either by helping with natural fertilization or in vitro.